Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Page: 1-6
Antibiotics Resistance in Water Mediums: Background, Facts, and Trends
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia;Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Noureddine Elboughdiri, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia;Département de Génie Chimique de Procédés, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Gabès (ENIG), Gabès, Tunisia
Received: Dec. 18, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 25, 2019;       Published: Jan. 7, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ae.20200401.11      View  635      Downloads  177
Abstract
From human and animal provenances, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms come into water mediums. Such bacteria are capable of diffusing their genes into water-indigenous microbes, which as well hold resistance genes. Conversely, several antibiotics from industrial sources spread in water mediums, greatly modifying microbial ecosystems. During the last decade, hazard evaluation protocols for antibiotics and resistant bacteria in water, founded on better programs for antibiotics discovery and antibiotic resistance microbial origin tracking, are more and more enhanced. Techniques to decrease resistant bacterial charge in wastewaters and the number of antimicrobial agents, in most cases originated in hospitals and farms, involve regulation of disinfection methods and running of wastewater and manure. For avoiding mixing human-originated and animal-originated microorganisms with ecological organisms, a procedure is more than recommended. This work reviews the facts and future trends of this new open and imposed field in dealing with domestic wastewater. It is vital to elevate efficient barrier measures such as membranes processes, like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration, avoiding the integration of resistant and pathogenic bacteria into nature. Techniques have to be developed for cheap and reliable: first, bacterial clones and resistance genes origin tracking; second, detection of antibiotics in water mediums; third, disinfection of water from antibiotic-resistant populations and the resistance gene pool, and elimination of antibiotics from wastewater; and fourth, prevention policies for mixing human–animal-originated and soil–water bacteria.
Keywords
Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria (ARB), Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs), Wastewater Treatment, Disinfection, Oxidation, Drinking Water
To cite this article
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Antibiotics Resistance in Water Mediums: Background, Facts, and Trends, Applied Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ae.20200401.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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