Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Page: 71-84
Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Received: Jun. 11, 2019;       Accepted: Jul. 8, 2019;       Published: Jul. 24, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ae.20190302.11      View  682      Downloads  254
For supplying drinking water throughout the world, there has been a huge growth in the usage of desalination factories. Nevertheless, the formation of brine (concentrate) is a complete side of the working of the desalination factory and encounters serious ecological defiance due to its elevated salinity. Thus, a cost-effective and environmentally friendly concentrate handling equipment is needed before its appropriate elimination. Presently, many elimination choices comprising surface water discharge, deep well injection, and evaporation ponds have been employed. Nevertheless, such methods are unsustainable and their application is restricted by an elevated capital cost and exclusive usages. Different traditional techniques comprising physicochemical, oxidation and biological methods with changing degrees of organics elimination have been noted. These days, membrane-based techniques seem to be cost-effective tools for treating brine since they could recuperate worthy resources and generate clean water with elevated recuperation. This review contributes to discussing the actual techniques for brine handling, comprising elimination usages and treatment methods. The features of the concentrate in a matter of water nature and its effect on open water bodies are reviewed. This work presents emerging membrane processes like forward osmosis, membrane distillation, and electrodialysis that are encouraging for reducing brine quantities, in recuperating worthy metals and enhancement of water recuperation. This discussion as well focuses on the reality that integrated membrane processes are better for concentrate handling for metals recuperation jointly with water decontamination in wastewater treatment factories and could attain a zero liquid discharge.
Brine Disposal, Seawater, Brackish Water, Membrane Processes, Water Treatment, Electrochemical Methods
To cite this article
Djamel Ghernaout, Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology, Applied Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 71-84. doi: 10.11648/j.ae.20190302.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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A. D'Haese, P. Le-Clech, S. Van Nevel, K. Verbeken, E. R. Cornelissen, S. J. Khan, A. R. D. Verliefde, Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: Influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute buildup, Water Res. 47 (2013) 5232-5244.
B. D. Coday, N. Almaraz, T. Y. Cath, Forward osmosis desalination of oil and gas wastewater: Impacts of membrane selection and operating conditions on process performance, J. Membr. Sci. 488 (2015) 40-55.
N. T. Hancock, P. Xu, M. J. Roby, J. D. Gomez, T. Y. Cath, Towards direct potable reuse with forward osmosis: technical assessment of long-term process performance at the pilot scale, J. Membr. Sci. 445 (2013) 34-46.
P. Balasubramanian, A brief review on best available technologies for reject water (brine) management in industries, Intern. J. Environ. Sci. 3 (2013) 2010-2018.
J. Morillo, J. Usero, D. Rosado, H. El Bakouri, A. Riaza, F.-J. Bernaola, Comparative study of brine management technologies for desalination plants, Desalination 336 (2014) 32-49.
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